The name of the Monastery Rousanou is undetermined, most likely because of the first inhabitant of the rock or the founder of the original church. The rock referred to as Rousanou was inhabited from the early 16th century, while the monastery was founded in the 14th century. But the monastery took its present form in the 16th century, when the brothers Ioasaf and Maximus from Epirus under the general renovation of the monastery rebuilt, with the consent of the bishop of Larissa Vissarion and the abbot of the monastery of Great Meteoron , the ruined church that was dedicated to the Transfiguration of Jeusus Christ.
The Catholicon that was built by the two brothers from Giannena in 1545, and decorated with frescoes, during the leadership of Arsenios in 1560, is dedicated to this day to the Transfiguration, but also honored in the memory of Santa Barbara. The monastery became a refuge of persecuted individuals and families during the various historical vicissitudes of the nation. During the 19th century the monastery declined and slowly fell into hermitage for the monks of the monastery Varlaam. Today, after the restoration, in 1980, by the Archaeological Service, it operates as a nunnery.
The monastery is located on the way from Kastraki to Meteora between St. Nicholas Anapafsas and Varlaam monastery. The ascent to the monastery was originally a ladder while now done with the help of two solid bridges, which were built in 1930 and replaced the previous wooden bridge which was built in 1868. The building complex covers the entire plateau on the top of the cliff. The monastery consists of a three-story complex, with the Catholicon and cells on the ground floor and reception areas, other cells and auxiliary rooms in the other two floors. The katholikon that was built in 1545 is a cross-shaped, two-columned, Athos type temple with simple, an almost square space covered with slightly ellipsoidal dome. The paintings of the ledger was made in 1560 and they represent in terms of quality one of the most mature works of painting of the acme of “Cretan School”.